History

1794-99: les Années Folles of Thermidor and the Directory

This tile covers the mid-1790s, as France recovered from the violence of the earlier part of the decade.

1793-94: Terror for the people and death for the monarchs

This period saw France’s descent into outright chaos, with political violence on a scale never seen before.

1791-1792: old enemies and a new Republic

This tile covers the latter period of constitutional monarchy in France, as it became increasingly clear that Louis XVI’s position was untenable.

1789-91: towards a constitutional monarchy

The period 1789-1791 was a time of uncertainty in France. This tile covers the attempts to establish a constitutional monarchy – and their disastrous failure.

The nested conflicts leading to the French Revolution

The causes of the French Revolution are complex. This tile discusses the multiple internal conflicts in France that made conditions ripe for upheaval.

What is it and when did it happen?

The French Revolution is actually not all that easy to define. Here we discuss how best to consider this period.

Anesthesia

Up until the mid-1800s, doctors could only offer patients opium, alcohol, and a bullet or rope to bite on to deal with the excruciating pain of surgery, which was only performed as a last resort.

Germ Theory

While it was first proposed in the 16th century, germ theory was developed and proved in the mid-1800s.

Immunology & the Development of Vaccines

Back in the 5th century BC, Thucydides wrote of individuals who had contracted a disease, recovered from it, and become immune to it.

Penicillin

Oxford policeman in 1941, who was exhibiting signs of a serious infection with abscesses all over his body. His improvement over 24hrs was remarkable.

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