Mongol (1206 – 1368)

The Mongols started life as a nomadic people in Central Asia, before rising to power in the 13th century, and creating the largest land empire in human history.

Angevin (1154 – 1214)

The Angevin Empire was a European civilization which stretched across Britain and France.

Khmer (802 – 1431)

The Khmer Empire was a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom located in Southeast Asia.

Carolingian (725 – 888)

During the 8th and 9th centuries, the Carolingians ruled a large, Christian empire in western Europe.

Umayyad Caliphate (661 – 750)

The Umayyad Caliphate was a Muslim empire that first appeared on the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century – the same time that the Byzantines were thriving in Turkey, the Ghanaians were rising in West Africa, and the Tang Dynasty took shape in China.

Tang (618 – 907)

The Tang Dynasty ruled over China from the capital city of Chang’an.

Ghana (300 – 1200)

The Ghana Empire was a powerful kingdom, flourishing in West Africa between approximately 300 and 1200 CE.

Maya (250 – 950)

The Maya were a Mesoamerican civilization that flourished from approximately 250 to 950 CE.

Byzantine (476 – 1453)

History can be divided into three periods: ancient, medieval, and modern.

The First Transatlantic Voyages and Discovery of the “New World”

The first transatlantic voyages were undertaken by the Norsemen, who sailed from Scandinavia to North America in the 11th century.

The Portuguese Empire and Search for Spice Routes

In the period prior to the Fall of Constantinople, Portugal emerged as a naval power, particularly under the influence of ‘Henry the Navigator’ (1340-1460), a prince and explorer who used his wealth and influence to fund expeditions along the African coast.

The Context of Exploration in European History

Ancient civilisations knew far more about the Earth than we might assume. By 500 BC, the Ancient Greeks believed that the Earth was a sphere, with an estimated circumference of around 25,000 miles.