Up until the mid-1800s, doctors could only offer patients opium, alcohol, and a bullet or rope to bite on to deal with the excruciating pain of surgery, which was only performed as a last resort.

Germ Theory

While it was first proposed in the 16th century, germ theory was developed and proved in the mid-1800s.

Immunology & the Development of Vaccines

Back in the 5th century BC, Thucydides wrote of individuals who had contracted a disease, recovered from it, and become immune to it.


Oxford policeman in 1941, who was exhibiting signs of a serious infection with abscesses all over his body. His improvement over 24hrs was remarkable.

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